What is Choline?

Choline is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal brain function and overall health. It is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is vital for memory, focus, and muscle control. Choline also contributes to the structural integrity of cell membranes and supports the metabolism of fats in the liver.

Where does Choline come from?

Choline can be naturally obtained from various dietary sources, including eggs, fish, meat, poultry, and certain vegetables. Some of the best choline-rich foods are egg yolks, beef liver, and soybeans. Additionally, choline is available in various forms as dietary supplements, such as choline bitartrate, choline chloride, and choline citrate.

What are the effects of Choline?


  • Enhances memory and learning capacity
  • Supports focus and attention
  • Promotes the synthesis of acetylcholine
  • May reduce age-related cognitive decline


  • Maintains cell membrane integrity
  • Supports liver health and fat metabolism
  • Contributes to normal muscle function

How to use Choline?

Choline can be obtained from a balanced diet containing choline-rich foods, or through supplementation. Supplements are available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, and powders. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any supplementation regimen.

How much Choline to use?

When trying out new supplements it is wise to start with a lower dose and–depending on the experienced effects–increase or decrease the dosage accordingly

The appropriate dosage of choline may vary depending on individual factors such as age, sex, and health status. The Adequate Intake (AI) for choline is:

  • 425 mg/day for adult women
  • 550 mg/day for adult men
  • 450 mg/day for pregnant women
  • 550 mg/day for breastfeeding women

However, consult your healthcare provider for personalized recommendations.

What are the side effects of Choline?

Choline is generally safe when consumed in recommended amounts. However, excessive intake may cause side effects such as:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fishy body odor
  • Low blood pressure

It is essential to follow the recommended dosages to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Interactions of Choline

Most nootropics are relatively safe to use on their own. Combining them with other substances may cause them to suddenly become dangerous or life-threatening.

Choline supplements may interact with certain medications or health conditions. Consult your healthcare provider if you are taking:

  • Anticholinergic medications
  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
  • Methotrexate

Additionally, people with liver or kidney problems should discuss choline supplementation with their healthcare provider before starting any regimen.

Other namesCholine bitartrate, Choline chloride, Choline citrate
EffectsFocus, Memory