What is Melatonin?

Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone that is naturally produced by the pineal gland in the brain. This hormone is responsible for regulating sleep and wakefulness, playing a significant role in the body's circadian rhythm, or internal clock. Melatonin production is primarily influenced by the presence of light, with levels increasing at night and decreasing during daylight hours.

Where does Melatonin come from?

Melatonin is naturally synthesized within the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan. The process starts with the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, which is then converted to melatonin. Additionally, melatonin can be found in certain foods, such as cherries, tomatoes, and almonds, although these dietary sources provide only small amounts of the hormone. Melatonin is also available as a dietary supplement in various forms, including capsules, tablets, and gummies.

What are the effects of Melatonin?


  • Regulates sleep and wakefulness
  • May improve sleep quality and duration
  • Reduces sleep latency (time to fall asleep)


  • Antioxidant properties
  • Supports immune function
  • May reduce jet lag symptoms

How to use Melatonin?

Melatonin is typically taken orally as a dietary supplement 30 minutes to an hour before bedtime. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, gummies, and liquid formulations. To promote optimal sleep, maintain a consistent sleep schedule and create a relaxing bedtime routine.

How much Melatonin to use?

When trying out new supplements it is wise to start with a lower dose and–depending on the experienced effects–increase or decrease the dosage accordingly

The appropriate melatonin dosage varies depending on individual factors such as age, weight, and sensitivity to the hormone. A general guideline is as follows:

  • Mild dosage: 0.5 mg
  • Medium dosage: 3 mg
  • Strong dosage: 10 mg

However, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using melatonin, particularly if you are taking medications or have existing health conditions.

What are the side effects of Melatonin?

Some individuals may experience side effects from melatonin supplementation, although these are typically mild and short-lived. Potential side effects include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Nausea

If side effects persist or worsen, discontinue use and consult a healthcare professional.

Interactions of Melatonin

Most nootropics are relatively safe to use on their own. Combining them with other substances may cause them to suddenly become dangerous or life-threatening.

Melatonin may interact with certain medications and substances, so it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before beginning supplementation. Potential interactions include:

  • Sedative medications, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates
  • Antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • Blood pressure medications
  • Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs

Remember to always consult with a healthcare professional before adding melatonin to your regimen, especially if you are taking other medications or have pre-existing health conditions.

Other namesN-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine